Increase in gloss or sheen of paint film when subjected to rubbing, scrubbing or having an object brush up against it
- Use of flat paint in highly trafficked areas, where a higher sheen level would be desirable
- Frequent washing and spot cleaning
- Objects (furniture, for example) rubbing against the walls
- Use of lower grades of paint with poor stain and scrub resistance (See poor stain resistance and poor scrub resistance)
- Paint heavy wear areas that require regular cleaning (e.g., doors, window sills and trim) with PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paint, because this type of paint offers both durability and easier cleaning capability. In high traffic areas, choose a paint with a higher sheen level, such as PARA ULTRA Semi-Gloss (#8300) rather than a flat sheen level. Clean painted surfaces with a soft cloth or sponge and nonabrasive cleansers; rinse with clean water.
Undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together (e.g. a door sticking to the jamb)
- Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing doors or windows
- Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paints.
- Use PARA ULTRA top quality Semi-Gloss (#8300) 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. Low quality latex paints can have poor block resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Follow paint label instructions regarding dry times. PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Latex Paints have excellent early block resistance rather than vinyl latex paints, or alkyd or oil based paints, however, alkyds develop superior block resistance over time. Application of talcum powder can relieve persistent blocking.
Bubbles resulting from localized loss of adhesion and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.
- Applying oil based or alkyd paint over a damp or wet surface
- Moisture seeping into the home through the exterior walls (less likely with latex paint)
- Exposure of latex paint film to high humidity or moisture shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was inadequate surface preparation
- If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove blisters by scraping and sanding, and repaint with PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Interior Paint.
- If blisters go down to the substrate: Remove the source of moisture, if possible. Repair loose caulking; consider installing vents or exhaust fans. Remove blisters as above, remembering to prime with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality Primer before applying the top coat.
Loss of caulks initial adhesion and flexibility, causing it to crack and/or pull away from the surfaces to which it is applied.
- Use of lower quality caulk
- Use of wrong type of caulk for particular application (e.g., using latex or vinyl caulk in areas where there is prolonged contact with water or considerable movement of the caulked surfaces)
- Use a top quality water based acrylic or paintable caulk if prolonged contact with water is not anticipated. These caulks are flexible enough to adapt to minor fluctuations in the substrate, stretching in gaps that widen slightly over time. They also adhere to a wide range of interior building materials, including wood, ceramic tile, concrete, glass, plaster, bare aluminum, brick and plastic even in areas where moisture is present.
- Note: Silicone caulk should not be painted
Cracking / Flaking
The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat as a result of aging, which ultimately will lead to complete failure of the paint. In its early stages, the problem appears as hairline cracks; in its later stages, flaking occurs
- Use of a lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility
- Overthinning or overspreading the paint
- Inadequate surface preparation, or applying the paint to bare wood without first applying a primer
- Excessive hardening and embrittlement of alkyd paint as the paint job ages
- Remove loose and flaking paint with scraper or wire brush, sanding the surface and feathering the edges. If the flaking occurs in multiple layers of paint, use of a filler may be necessary. Prime bare wood areas before repainting. Use of an appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer and PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic top coat should prevent a recurrence of the problem.
Foaming / Cratering
Formation of bubbles (foaming) and resulting small, round concave depressions (cratering) when bubbles break in a paint film, during paint application and drying.
- Shaking a partially filled can of paint
- Use of low quality paint or very old latex paint
- Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly
- Use of a roller cover with wrong nap length
- Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint
- Applying a gloss or semi-gloss paint over a porous surface
- All paints will foam to some degree during application; However, PARA ULTRA Top quality paints are formulated so the bubbles break while the paint is still wet, allowing for good flow and appearance. Avoid excessive rolling or brushing of the paint or using paint that is more than a year old. Apply gloss and semi-gloss paints with a short nap roller, and apply an appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality sealer or primer before using such paint over a porous surface. Problem areas should be sanded before repainting.
Appearance of a denser colour or increased gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application.
- Failure to maintain a "wet edge" when painting
- Use of a low solids "economy" paint
- Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then brush into the just painted surface. This technique (brushing or rolling from "wet to dry," rather than vice versa) will produce a smooth, uniform appearance. It is also wise to work in manageable size areas; plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner. Using PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paint makes it easier to avoid lapping problems because higher solids (pigments and binder) content makes lapped areas less noticeable. If substrate is very porous, it may need a primer/sealer to prevent paint from drying too quickly and reducing wet edge time. Alkyd paints generally have superior wet edge properties.
Black, grey or brown spots or areas on the surface of paint or caulk.
- Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive little or no direct sunlight (e.g., bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms)
- Use of an alkyd or oil-based paint, or lower quality latex paint
- Failure to prime a bare wood surface before applying the paint
- Painting over a substrate or coating on which mildew has not been removed
- Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach to the area; if it is bleached away, the discolourant is probably mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water), while wearing rubber gloves and eye protection. Rinse thoroughly. To protect against mildew, use PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paint, and clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas.
Deep, irregular cracks resembling dried mud in dry paint film.
- Paint is applied too thickly, usually over a porous surface
- Paint is applied too thickly, to improve inherent poor hiding (coverage) of a lower quality paint
- Paint is allowed to build up in corners upon application
- Remove coating by scraping and sanding. Prime with the appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer and repaint, using PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. Mud cracked areas can also be repaired by sanding the surface smooth before repainting with PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. This type of paint is likely to prevent recurrence of mud cracking, because it is relatively more flexible than alkyd paint, oil based paint and ordinary latex paint. PARA ULTRA top quality paints have a higher solids content, which reduces the tendency to mud crack. They also have very good application and hiding properties, which minimize the tendency to apply too thick a coat of paint.
An effect of non uniform colour that can appear when a wall is painted with a roller, but is brushed at the corners. The brushed areas generally appear darker, resembling the "frame" of a "picture." Also, sprayed areas may be darker than neighbouring sections that are brushed or rolled. Picture framing can also refer to sheen effects.
- Usually a hiding (coverage) effect. Brushing will generally result in lower spread rates than rolling, producing a thicker film and more hiding.
- Adding colorant to a non-tintable paint or using the wrong type or level of colorant.
- Make sure that spread rates with brushes and rollers are similar. Don't cut in the entire room before roller coating. Work in smaller sections of the room to maintain a "wet edge." With tinted paints, be sure the correct colorant base combinations are used. Factory colours, as well as in-store tints, should be thoroughly shaken at time of sale.
Poor Flow / Levelling
Failure of paint to dry to a smooth film, resulting in unsightly brush and roller marks after the paint dries.
- Use of lower quality paint
- Application of additional paint to "touch up" partially dried painted areas
- Re-brushing or re-rolling partially dried painted areas
- Use of the wrong type of roller cover or poor quality brush
- Use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paints, which are formulated with ingredients that enhance paint flow. Brush and roller marks thus tend to "flow out" and form a smooth film. When using a roller be sure to use a cover with the recommended nap length for the type of paint being used. Use of a high quality brush is important; a poor brush can result in bad flow and levelling with any paint.
Failure of dried paint to obscure or "hide" the surface to which it is applied.
- Use of a low quality paint
- Use of low quality tools/wrong roller cover
- Use of an improper combination of tinting base and tinting colour
- Poor flow and levelling (see poor flow/levelling)
- Use of a paint that is much lighter in colour than the substrate, or that primarily contains low hiding organic pigments
- Application of paint at a higher spread rate than recommended
- If the substrate is significantly darker or is patterned wallpaper, it should be primed before applying a top coat. use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic paint for better hiding and flow. Use quality tools; use the recommended roller nap, if rolling. Follow manufacturer's recommendation on spread rate; if using tinted paint, use the correct tinting base. Where a low hiding organic colour must be used, apply a primer first.
Poor Print Resistance
Tendency of paint film to take on the imprint of an object that is placed on it (e.g., a shelf, table, window sill or countertop with books, dishes and other object on them).
- Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paint
- Putting a painted surface back into use before paint has fully dried
- Use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Semi-Gloss (#8300) or gloss latex paint. Low quality latex semi-gloss and gloss paints can have poor print resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Acrylic latex paints generally have better print resistance than vinyl latex paints. Fully cured alkyd paints also have excellent print resistance. Make sure the recommended "cure" time is allowed for the paint before it is put into service. Cool or humid conditions require more curing time.
Poor Scrub Resistance
Wearing away or removal of the paint film when scrubbed with a brush, sponge, or cloth.
- Choosing the wrong sheen for the area
- Use of a lower quality paint
- Use of an overly aggressive scrub medium (see burnishing)
- Areas that need frequent cleaning require PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Paint formulated to provide such performance. High traffic areas may require a semi-gloss or gloss paint rather than a flat paint to provide good scrub resistance. Allow adequate dry time, as scrub resistance will not fully develop until the paint is thoroughly cured. Typically, this will be one week. Try washing the painted surface with the least abrasive material and mildest detergent first.
Poor Sheen Uniformity
Shiny spots or dull spots (also known as "flashing") on a painted surface; uneven gloss.
- Uneven spread rate
- Failure to properly prime a porous surface, or surface with varying degrees of porosity
- Poor application resulting in lapping (see lapping)
- New substrates should be primed/sealed with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer-sealer before applying a PARA ULTRA top coat to ensure a uniformly porous surface. Without the use of a primer or sealer, a second coat of paint will more likely be needed. Make sure to apply paint from "wet to dry" to prevent lapping. Often, applying an additional coat will even out sheen irregularities.
Poor Stain Resistance
Failure of the paint to resist absorption of dirt and stains.
- Use of lower quality paint that is porous in nature
- Application of paint to unprimed substrate
- PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paints contain more binder, which help prevent stains from penetrating the painted surface, allowing for easy removal. Priming new surfaces with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer provides maximum film thickness of a premium top coat, providing very good stain removeablity.
Roller Marks / "Stipple"
- Use of incorrect roller cover
- Use of lower grades of paint
- Use of low quality roller
- Use of incorrect rolling technique
- Use the proper roller cover; avoid too long a nap for the paint and the substrate. Use quality rollers to ensure adequate film thickness and uniformity. PARA ULTRA top quality Paints roll on more evenly due to their higher solids content and levelling properties. Pre-dampen roller covers used with latex paint; shake out excess water. Don't let paint build up at rollers end. Begin rolling at a corner near the ceiling and work down the wall in three foot square section. Spread the paint in a zigzag "M" or "W" pattern, beginning with an upward stroke to minimize splatter; then, without lifting the roller from the surface, fill in the zigzag pattern with even, parallel strokes.
Tendency of a roller to throw off small droplets of paint during application
- Use of exterior paint on an interior surface
- Use of lower grades of latex paints
- PARA ULTRA top quality paints are formulated to minimize spattering. Using high quality rollers which have proper resiliency further reduces spattering. Overloading the roller with paint will result in excess spatter, as will overworking the paint once it is applied to a substrate. Working in three feet square sections, applying the paint in a zigzag "M" or "W" pattern and then filling in the pattern will also lessen the likelihood of spattering. For ceilings, we recommend using PARA ULTRA Ceiling Paints, as they are designed specifically for maximum spatter resistance. For stucco ceilings, determine if the ceiling has been previously painted. If no, use PARA ULTRA Alkyd-based Ceiling Paint (#676).
Downward "drooping" movement of the paint film immediately after application, resulting in an uneven coating.
- Application of a heavy coat of paint
- Application in excessively humid and/or cool conditions
- Application of over thinned paint
- Airless spraying with the gun too close to the substrate being painted.
- If paint is still wet, immediately brush out or reroll to redistribute the excess evenly. If the paint has dried, sand and reapply a new coat of PARA ULTRA top quality Paint. Correct any unfavourable condition: Do not thin the paint, avoid cool or humid condition as well as sand glossy surfaces. Paint should be applied at its recommended spread rage; avoid "heaping on" the paint. Two coats of paint at the recommended spread are better than one heavy coat, which can also lead to sagging. Consider removing doors to paint them supported horizontally.
Concentration of water-soluble ingredients on the surface of latex paint, typically on a ceiling surface in rooms that have high humidity (e.g., shower, bathroom, kitchen); may be evident as tan or brown spots or areas, and can sometimes be glossy, soapy or sticky.
- All latex paint formulas will exhibit this tendency to some extent if applied in areas that become humid (bathrooms, for example), especially in ceiling areas
- Wash the affected area with soap and water, and rinse. Problem may occur once or twice again before leachable material is completely removed. When paint is applied in a bathroom, it is helpful to have it dry thoroughly before using the shower. Remove all staining before repainting.
A rough, crinkled paint surface, which occurs when uncured paint forms a "skin".
- Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using alkyd or oil-based paints)
- Painting during extremely hot weather or cool damp weather, which causes the paint film to dry faster on top than on the bottom
- Exposing uncured paint to high humidity levels
- Applying top coat of paint to insufficiently cured primer
- Painting over contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax)
- Scrape or sand substrate to remove wrinkled coating. If using a primer allow it to dry completely before applying top coat. Repaint (avoiding extreme temperatures & humidity), applying an even coat of PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Interior Paint.
- Oxidation of alkyd or oil-based paint or varnish
- Heat from stoves, radiators and heating ducts
- Lack of light (e.g., behind pictures or appliances, inside closets, etc.)
- PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paints do not tend to yellow, nor do PARA ULTRA varnishes. Alkyd paints, because of their curing mechanism, do tend to yellow, particularly in areas that are protected from sunlight.